B.A., The Evergreen State College, 1977
M.A., Harvard University
P.G.D., University of Cambridge
I am a nanotechnologist specializing in electronic and electro-optics devices. Lately my work has been in carbon nanotube and graphene based electonic devices and CIGS based solar cells. On the obsessive side , I am also working on a novel which I hope to shop this fall. It is entitled The Dahlem Initiative and is about US efforts to capture Nazi Nuclear Technology prior to the Soviet Union capturing Berlin , where the technology was developed.
Fiction, Non-Fiction, Scholastic
Latest Publication Title
"Reduction of CNT Interconnect Resistance for the Replacement of Cu for Future Technology Nodes"
ZnO Nanotechnology and Applications (with Zhong L. Wang, Ashok .K. Sood, and Dennis L. Polla) (to be published)
"Robust p-type doping of ZnO with integrated Wave Guides using MOCVD for UV Lasers," Conf Compound Semi, 2004 (with A. Sood, R. Singh, Y. Puri, T. Steiner, R. Davis, J. Pierce, and D. Look)
"Development of High Performance AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for RF Applications," SPIE Conference Proceedings, 2004 (with A.K. Sood, F.W. Clarke, R. Singh, Y.R. Purim, A.M. Dabrian, P. Chow, A. Souzis, and T. Anderson)
"Design and Development of High Performance radiation hardened coatings for LWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays," SPIE Conference Proceedings, 2004 (with A.K. Sood, Y.R. Puri, G.N. Brill, P.S. Wijewarnasuriya, Y. Chan, N.K. Dhar, M.Z. Tidrow, and P. Lovecchio)
"Design and Development of Multi-color Detector Arrays," SPIE Conference Proceedings, 2004 (with A. Sood, Y. Puri, E. Bellotti, L. Becker, and R. Balcerak)
"Design considerations of ROIC for single color LWIR and multicolor IR focal plane arrays," Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940A, 2006 (with A. Sood, Y. Puri, L. Becker, T. Cook,and F. Kiamilev)
"Twelve key trends in optical communications component and system testing," Proc. SPIE 4582, 179, 2001 (with M. Minneman, M. Crawford, and S. Cason)
"12 Key trends in optical communications component & subsystem testing," Proc. SPIE 4582, 2001 (with M. Minneman, M. Crawford, S. Cason, L. Lin, and S. Zhang)
"IRFPA FM Program," Proceedings of the IRIS Conf on IRFPA Producibility, 1993 (with J. Kerrigan)
"Producibility of a LWIR 128x128 Nuclear Hardened Focal Plane Array for the PET Program," Proceedings of the IRIS Conf on IRFPA Producibility, 1992 (with R. Wilder)
"Producible Nuclear Hardened Focal Plane Array," Proceeding of IRIS detector Specialty Group Meeting, 1992 (with R. Wilder, M. Weiler, G. Pultz, P.McDonald, and A. Hairston)
"Producible Nuclear Hardened Focal Plane Array, Detector and read out electronics Performance," IRIS Detector Specialty Group Meeting, 1991 (with R. Wilder, M.Weiler, G. Pultz, K.Kunz, E. Krueger, and A. Hairston)
"Implementation of CIM and SPC in IRFPA Pilot Line Manufacturing," IRIS Detector Specialty Group Meeting, 1991 (with J. Marcinec, N. Hartle, B. Stone, and P. Norton)
"Scale up of LPE for Pilot Line Applications," IRIS Detector Specialty Group Meeting, 1991 (with G. Pultz and P. Norton)
"Cryoprobe Screening of Second Gen detectors Arrays," IRIS Detector Specialty Group Meeting, 1991 (with A. Erwin)
"Large Area FPA Hybridizer," IRIS Detector Specialty Group Meeting, 1992 (with A. Sood and N. Dieselmann)
"Automation of IRFPA production processes,", Proc. SPIE 1339, 212, 1990 (with N. Dieselman, W.M. Higgins, P.H. Zimmermann, and A. Sood)
"Temperature Control for High Rate single Wafer Etching," Solid State Technology, March 1982
"Single Wafer Etcher" Ionics, June 1982
"Reduction of CNT Interconnect Resistance for the Replacement of Cu for Future Technology Nodes," by Jonathan W. Ward, Jonathan Nichols, Timothy B. Stachowiak, Quoc Ngo, and E. James Egerton:
Replacement of Cu interconnects with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been hindered by the high resistance of the CNTs. In this paper, methods for reducing CNT interconnect sheet resistance are presented. Functionalization with electron accepting molecules decreased sheet resistance up to 60%, giving a minimum sheet resistance of ~55 Ω/sq. Alignment of CNTs within the interconnect further reduced resistance. In contrast to non-aligned fabrics, aligned CNT interconnects maintained a constant resistance as CNT line width decreased, demonstrating a path for scaling to smaller technology nodes. In addition, interconnects made with single-walled CNTs consistently showed lower resistance than those with multiwalled CNTs. Finally, a projected RC delay was calculated that demonstrates improved performance below the 45 nm technology node for CNTs compared to Cu. To achieve the desired RC delay improvement, the aspect ratio of the CNT interconnect should be scaled appropriately and combined with an additional reduction in CNT interconnect sheet resistance to 10 Ω/sq, which is feasible based on the functionalization and alignment methods presented here.
How did Evergreen help you in your career?
I studied chemistry and physics and worked with some outstanding faculty such as Jeff Kelly, Matt Halfant,and Rob Knapp. Technology has changed over my career and Evergreen taught me to learn new areas quickly especially self reliance.